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The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 29, 114–123.(self) 6 [Book] Interaction of Media, Cognition, and Learning - Gavriel Salomon(self) 4 [Article] Oxygen and Diverse Nutrients Influence the Water Kefir Fermentation Process / Laureys D., Aerts M., Vandamme P., De Vuyst L.(self) 5 [Article] [HeinOnline] The Artificial Reason of the Law or: What Lawyers Know, by Charles Fried(self) 1 [Book] Structure And Mechanism In Protein Science: A Guide To Enzyme Catalysis And Protein Folding (Structural Biology) by Alan Fersht Reprint Edition(self) 3 [Article] Neurostimulation Therapies for Primary Headache Disorders: Present and Future(self) 3 [Article] Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation Reduces Nociceptive Behaviour in an Orofacial Pain Model(self) 4 [Article] Characterization of Degradation Behavior for PLGA in Various pH Condition by Simple Liquid Chromatography Method Yoo, Je Young | Kim, Jong Min | Seo, Kwang Su | Jeong, Yong Kyun | Lee, Hai Bang | Khang, Gilson(self) 1 [Thesis] Winton, Douglas Walter(self) 3 [Article] Denis Muzerelle, “Dating Manuscripts: What Is at Stake in the Steps Usually (but Infrequently) Taken,”(self) 1 Needs Digitizing [ARTICLE] Francesca Ferrari - Il fatto notorio e la rete Internet(self) 1 Needs Digitizing [ARTICLE] Francesca Ferrari - Il fatto notorio e la rete Internet(self) 4 [Book] Practising Italian Grammar(self) 3 [Book] Growth, Distribution, and Prices(self) 5 [Book] Conflict and Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific New Geopolitical Realities Edited ByAsh Rossiter, Brendon J. 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Pablo Gómez-Rubio, Isabel Trapero(self) 2 [Article] On the Determination of the Number, Size, Spacing, and Volume Fraction of Spherical Second-Phase Particles from Extraction Replicas(self) 5 [Book] Remington and Klein's Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant 8th Edition by Christopher Wilson Victor Nizet Yvonne Maldonado Jack Remington Jerome Klein(self) 1 [Other] (Monthly Newspaper in France) Le Monde Diplomatique (English Edition) June 2020.(self) 1 [Other] (Monthly Newspaper in France) Le Monde Diplomatique (English Edition) May 2020.(self) 1 [BOOK] Crime and Markets - Vincenzo Ruggiero(self) 2 [Book] The Search for Meaning by Dennis Ford(self) 1 [Book] The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?(self) 1 [Chapter] Gustav Mahler, the Wunderhorn years: chronicles and commentaries Vol. 2 -- pp. 408-410(self) 4 [Article] [Heinonline] 2 old Articles from the African Journal of International and Comparative Law(self) 4 [ARTICLE] 'Ways of Prediction, Ways of Rhetoric' Philippe-Joseph Salazar, Philosophy & Rhetoric Vol. 50, No. 4 (2017), pp. 390-408(self) 1 [Article] [Needs Digitizing] Wells, J. C. (1986). A standardized machine-readable phonetic notation. In Conference Publication No. 258. International Conference on Speech Input / Output; Techniques and Applications, 24–26 March 1986. London: Institute of Electrical Engineers, 134–137.(self) 4 [Book] (BRILL) Indian Diaspora: Voices of the Diasporic Elders in Five Countries(self) 1 [BOOK] 'Hegel, freedom, and modernity' by Merold Westphal, 1992(self) 1 [Supplement] Panza MJ, Graupensperger S, Agans JP, Doré I, Vella SA, Evans MB. Adolescent sport participation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of sport and exercise psychology. 2020 May 21;42(3):201-18.(self) 2 [Article] Cooley at al. (2019). Complex intersections of race and class: Among social liberals, learning about White privilege reduces sympathy, increases blame, and decreases external attributions for White people struggling with poverty(self) 4 [Book] [Brill] Resolving Conflicts in the Law : Essays in Honour of Lea Brilmayer(self) 1 [Book] Master Medicine: General and Systematic Pathology 3rd Edition(self) 4 [book] Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century - A Global History by Ira M. 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Iloeje, 2020).(self) 6 [Article] Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production, by I. Roshita, K. M. P. Nurfazira, C. Shi Fern, and M. S. Nur Ain(self) 1 [Book] Screen Adaptation: Impure Cinema by Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan(self) 4 [Book] Earth’s Insights (Callicott 1997)(self) 1 [Book] Viscosity of Pure Organic Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures 2017(self) 2 [BOOK] Needed: A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Hebrew language for readers of English(self) 1 [Book] Hydrothermal chemistry of zeolites(self) 5 [Chapter] 2 chapters from A History of the United States Author: Philip Jenkins 3. Expansion and Crisis, 1825–65 6. Expansion and Crisis, 1825–65(self) 4 [Chapter] 8. The Fall of Actually Existing Socialism Authors: Prof. Geoffrey Swain, Dr. Nigel Swain(self) 5 [article] Sci-Hub didn't work for this article so I hope someone could help me !(self) 4 [Book] Evil Men, James Dawes(self) 1 [Chapter] from the book The Versailles Settlement Peacemaking after the First World War, 1919-1923 by Alan Sharp chapter 2. The Paris Peace Conference chapter 3. The League of Nations(self) 2 [Book] Macroeconomics(self) 1 [Article] "Eleutherna, the Orthi Petra Necropolis: Slewn by the Iron" by Nicholas Chr. Stampolidis.(self) 3 [Book] Contemporary Linguistics(self) 4 [Article]( 1 [Article]( 3 [Book] Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry(self) 1 [BOOK] Mastering Chemistry eBook(self) 3 [Book] The Oxford Handbook of Sovereign Wealth Funds(self) 1 [Book] "Marx, Marxism and Utopia" by Darren Webb (2000)(self) 5 [Article] "Law and Society", by Joachim J. Savelsberg, Lara L. Cleveland, in Oxford Bibliographies in Sociology(self) 2 [BOOK] Encouraging Pro-Environmental Behaviour - What Works, What Doesn't, and Why (2019)(self) 1 [BOOK] ''Guide for the economic design of circular metal silos'' by J.M. Rotter(self) 3 [BooK](JSTOR) The Evolved Apprentice: How Evolution Made Humans Unique by Kim Sterelny(self) 13 [Article] Matthews, Graham 2020 Pandemic, recession...: Capitalism is a Sick System. Green Left Weekly 1257, 2020.(self) 1 [BOOK]A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Hebrew language for readers of English(self) 1 [Article] Sound Levels in Nursing Homes by Laura L. 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Peter Lang(self) 1 [book] Petroleum Contracts and International Law by Rudolf Dolzer(self) 1 [Book] A Short History of Persian Literature At the Bahmanī, the ‘Ādilshāhī and the Qutbshāhī Courts – Deccan(self) 4 [Book] A Japanese Advertising Agency: An Anthropology of Media and Markets (Routledge) by Brian Moeran(self) 1 [Book] The Way of Synthesis: Evolution of Design and Methods for Natural Products(self) 1 [book] ما في القرآن الكريم - دراسة نحوية(self) 6 [Book] (JSTOR) First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America by David J. Meltzer(self)
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Groestlcoin Release September 2018


As always, the past 3 months since 22nd June have been crazy busy. The bears might still be around, but the show must go on and of course has not slowed the Groestlcoin development team in the slightest. Here’s a quick overview of what has already happened since the last release: - Integrated into the bitbns exchange, with the ability to buy Groestlcoin directly with the Indian Rupee. - Groestlcoin Rebrand Vote – Whilst there was much talk and push for a rebrand vote, the overall result was almost unanimously in favour of keeping our unique and conversation-starting name. With just 83 votes to Rebrand, and 2577 votes to No Rebrand. Thank you for all who voted, the funds raised are being used to fund ongoing hosting and development costs. - Integrated into the Cryptobridge exchange. Cryptobridge is a popular decentralised exchange where you always hold the private keys to your funds, only YOU have access to them. - Groestlcoin has been added to SimpleSwap – Groestlcoin can now be swapped with over 100 other cryptocurrencies, without signing up! - Groestlcoin has been added to UnoDax, one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in India, with TUSD, BTC and INR trading pairs. - Groestlcoin has been added to, where you can buy Groestlcoin using Bitcoin and over 50 other altcoins. Purchasing with VISA/Mastercard is coming VERY SOON. Discussed later: - Groestlcoin has been listed on #3 largest exchange in the world on volume, Huobi Global! More on this to come further on in the announcements. - Groestlcoin has been added to the Guarda Multi-Currency Wallet. - Groestlcoin has been added to Melis Multi-Device, Multi-Account, Multi-Platform, Multi-Signature advanced wallet! Already this list is far more than most other cryptocurrencies have achieved in the past 3 months. But this is just the tip of the iceberg of what has been developed.

What's been Happening?

GRSPay Released

We are so excited for this, that it has it's own separate reddit thread. Head over there now at to see more on this!

Melis Wallet

The the most advanced wallet for Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and now Groestlcoin.
With Melis you have the complete control of your bitcoins and private keys, you can define spending limits policies and make use of two or more factors authentication. Melis is open source, published on GitHub.

How Melis Works?

You can create as many accounts as you want. An account is a part of your wallet that can be customised to your requirements. You can choose how many co-signers are required to spend funds. The accounts are completely independent and act like separate wallets from each other but can be accessed via the same details. A core feature of Melis is the ability to set a ‘primary’ device. With this you can set an account as ‘Secure’ so it is only viewable (and accessible at all) from the Primary device. You can have a savings account hidden from the outside world whilst also having your ‘spending’ funds available on the go. With Melis you can create a multi-signature account between N people, where up to N signatures are required to sign a transaction, choosing if any of those should be mandatory.
Core Features:

Guarda Wallet

Safer than ever! Desktop Light Wallet - Anonymous and fast!
With Guarda Multi-currency Desktop Light Wallet you don’t need to register. Guarda has no access to your private keys or funds. You can receive, send, store, buy and exchange cryptocurrencies in complete anonymity and safety. All these features are available on Linux, Windows or MacOS. Choose the one that suits you!
More info about Guarda wallet on

Integrated into HolyTransaction

What is HolyTransaction?

HolyTransaction gives users access to the crypto world with a universal cryptocurrency wallet and instant exchange.


For more information, visit Holy Transaction here.

Integrated into NEXT Wallet

What is NEXT?

NEXT is a modern, next-generation stylish open-source Desktop wallet.


For more information, visit NextWallet here.

Integrated into Blockchain Financial

What is Blockchain Financial?

Blockchain Financial is a set of web based services for individuals and companies that want to make things happen with the Cryptocurrencies Ecosystem. - For those that don't know anything about cryptocurrencies, we offer tools that will let them receive, send and operate with an assortment of coins. - For those that are already riding the wave, we offer tools that will let them do all those things that they weren't able to do.

Blockchain Financials mission

We're not here to reinvent the wheel. We're here to make it run smoother for you, and we provide some of the most useful services you'll find on the internet, made in a way that is easy to understand and use on a daily basis. In short, we're a bunch of people that claim to be Crypto Evangelists. We strongly believe in cryptocurrencies, and our main promise is to push them up so more people get involved and take all the advantages they offer.

More information from Blockchain Financial

Back in 2014, the world was taken by storm when Facebook approved the first cryptocurrencies tipping apps. The first was for Dogecoin, and the second was for multiple coins.
The project was hosted on, and persisted for almost two years, built up a massive user community and gave a home to Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin and dozens of other bitcoin-based altcoins.
After very active months, the tipping hype started to fade away. Then, the developers decided to jump into the next stage: bringing not only tipping, but also mining and a widget that could be embedded on websites to allow everyone to accept payments. Sadly, the work was never completed because the project started to require an unsustainable amount of resources. Then, in a painful decision, a shutdown was announced by December 2015.
A couple of months after was closed, the source code was released by its creator as Open Source on GitHub. But it wasn't maintained.
Now, some of the original members of the dev and admin teams gathered up with a handful of the WhitePuma's elite users, and decided to make something good with the best pieces of the old source code. That, with fresh new ideas and the power of the BardCanvas engine, synthesized the core of Blockchain Financial.
More info about Blockchain Financial wallet on .
For more information, visit [Blockchain Financial](

Groestlcoin Listed on Huobi

Who are Huobi?

Huobi was founded in China and is now based in Singapore, with offices in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and the North America, currently sitting #3 in volume on Coinmarketcap. Huobi is a great leap forward for our growing presence in Asia and we are very excited to be listed here!
You can find the official Huobi announcement here.

Groestlcoin Core v2.16.3 - Please Update ASAP

A new major Groestlcoin Core version 2.16.3 is now available for download which includes both a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability, so it is recommended to upgrade to it if you are running a full Groestlcoin node or a local Groestlcoin Core wallet.
v2.16.3 is now the official release version of Groestlcoin Core. This is a new major version release with a very important security updates. It is recommended to upgrade to this version as soon as possible. Please stop running versions of Groestlcoin Core affected by CVE-2018-17144 ASAP: These are 2.13.3 and 2.16.0.
As a result in this, all exchanges and services have been asked to upgrade to this version, so please be patient if wallets go in to maintenance mode on these services.

What's new in version v2.16.3?

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core fixing a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability ( exploitable by miners that has been discovered in Groestlcoin Core version 2.13.3 and 2.16.0. It is recommended to upgrade to 2.16.3 as soon as possible. If you only occasionally run Groestlcoin Core, then it's not necessary to run out and upgrade it right this second. However, you should upgrade it before you next run it. If you know anyone who is running an older version, tell them to upgrade it ASAP. Stored funds are not at risk, and never were at risk. At this time we believe over half of the Groestlcoin hashrate has upgraded to patched nodes. We are unaware of any attempts to exploit this vulnerability. However, it still remains critical that affected users upgrade and apply the latest patches to ensure no possibility of large reorganizations, mining of invalid blocks, or acceptance of invalid transactions occurs.

The Technicals

In Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, an optimization was added (Bitcoin Core PR #9049) which avoided a costly check during initial pre-relay block validation that multiple inputs within a single transaction did not spend the same input twice which was added in 2012 (Bitcoin Core PR #443). While the UTXO-updating logic has sufficient knowledge to check that such a condition is not violated in 2.13.3 it only did so in a sanity check assertion and not with full error handling (it did, however, fully handle this case twice in prior to Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block will result in an assertion failure and a crash, as was originally reported. In Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, as a part of a larger redesign to simplify unspent transaction output tracking and correct a resource exhaustion attack the assertion was changed subtly. Instead of asserting that the output being marked spent was previously unspent, it only asserts that it exists. Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block where the output being spent was created in the same block, the same assertion failure will occur. However, if the output being double-spent was created in a previous block, an entry will still remain in the CCoin map with the DIRTY flag set and having been marked as spent, resulting in no such assertion. This could allow a miner to inflate the supply of Groestlcoin as they would be then able to claim the value being spent twice.
Groestlcoin would like to publicly thank Reddit user u/Awemany for finding CVE-2018-17144 and reporting it ( You deserve gratitude and appreciation from cryptoworld, and you have ours. If you want to support him for his work, please consider donating to him on his bitcoin cash address: bitcoincash:qr5yuq3q40u7mxwqz6xvamkfj8tg45wyus7fhqzug5

Groestlcoin Electrum-GRS 3.2.2 - Ledger & Trezor Edition

What is Electrum-GRS?
Electrum-GRS is a lightweight "thin client" groestlcoin wallet Windows, MacOS and Linux based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain.


Electrum-GRS Mobile Android

What is Electrum-GRS Mobile?

Electrum-grs is a lightweight "thin client" groestlcoin wallet Android based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain.


Groestlcoin EasyVanity Released

Groestlcoin EasyVanity is a Windows app is built from the ground-up in C# and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke Groestlcoin address(es), even whilst not connected to the internet! You can even generate multiple keys with the same prefix and leave it on overnight whilst your CPU or GPU collects and stores these addresses locally.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.


• Ability to continue finding keys after first one is found • Includes warning on startup if connected to the internet • Ability to output keys to a text file (And shows button to open that directory) • Ability to make your match case sensitive (Where possible) • Show and hide the private key with a simple toggle switch, and copy the private key straight to your clipboard • Show full output of commands • Includes statistics whilst the application is running • Ability to choose between Processor (CPU) and Graphics Card (GPU) • Automatically detects 32 or 64 bit systems • Features both a Light and Dark Material Design inspired Themes • EasyVanity's search is probabilistic, and the amount of time required to find a given pattern depends on how complex the pattern is, the speed of your computer, and whether you get lucky. • EasyVanity includes components to perform address searching on your CPU (vanitygen) and your OpenCL-compatible GPU (oclvanitygen). Both can be built from source, and both are included in the Windows binary package. • Prefixes are exact strings that must appear at the beginning of the address. When searching for prefixes, Easyvanity will ensure that the prefix is possible, and will provide a difficulty estimate. • The percentage displayed just shows how probable it is that a match would be found in the session so far. If it finds your address with 5% on the display, you are extremely lucky. If it finds your address with 92% on the display, you are unlucky. If you stop EasyVanity with 90% on the display, restart it, and it finds your address with 2% on the display, your first session was unlucky, but your second session was lucky. • EasyVanity uses the OpenSSL random number generator. This is the same RNG used by groestlcoin and a good number of HTTPS servers. It is regarded as well-scrutinized. Guessing the private key of an address found by EasyVanity will be no easier than guessing a private key created by groestlcoin itself. • To speed up address generation, EasyVanity uses the RNG to choose a private key, and literally increments the private key in a loop searching for a match. As long as the starting point is not disclosed, if a match is found, the private key will not be any easier to guess than if every private key tested were taken from the RNG. EasyVanity will also reload the private key from the RNG after 10,000,000 unsuccessful searches (100M for oclvanitygen), or when a match is found and multiple patterns are being searched for. • Free software - MIT. Anyone can audit the code. • Written in C# - The code is short, and easy to review.

Groestlcoin Sentinel (Android & Blackberry) – Mainnet + Testnet

What is Sentinel?

Groestlcoin Sentinel is the easiest and fastest way to track/receive/watch payments in your offline Groestlcoin Wallets. Groestlcoin Sentinel is compatible with any standard Groestlcoin address, BIP44 XPUB (Extended Public Key) BIP49 YPUB and BIP84 ZPUB
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets). Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that particular wallet.

What's New?

The P2SH paperwallet supports creating P2SH paperwallets in bulk, keypair generation with QR codes and sweeping tool. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.
The BECH32 paperwallet supports creating BECH32 paperwallets in bulk, keypair generation with QR codes and sweeping tool. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.

Groestlcoin Web Wallet Update 1.4

What is Groestlcoin Web Wallet?
Groestlcoin Webwallet is an open source, multisignature, HD Wallet and more! Webwallet is a a open source browser based Groestlcoin webwallet.
Webwallet is a playground for Groestlcoin in javascript to experiment with. It supports multisig, OP_HODL, RBF and many more. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.
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Centauri Dreaming, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Meson

T S Eliot was wrong. Not about most things, arguably, but in one particular instance in 2016 CE, a bang nearly ended the world. A multitude of bangs, technically, but the first bang was the most important of all.
North Korea, drunk on power from developing a hydrogen bomb alongside an effective ICBM delivery system, did something most would regard as foolhardy at the best of times. With the initial missile strike, Seoul ceased to exist. China attempted to step in and control the situation, primarily in an attempt to not have radiation spread wide across their lands from United States retaliatory strikes. They declared that any further aggression would be met by equal force. With the public outcry against North Korea globally, however, it was not enough of a deterrent. Retribution from the United States was swift--molten glass where mountains once stood. Chinese leadership, already feeling the effects of the radiation and understanding that if they didn't act in desperation that they would lose everything they've worked decades to achieve, launched their own nuclear warheads. Soon, NATO was involved. Russia jumped in on the side of China, hoping to at least curb the American aggression. Even Israel got caught up in the mix.
By 2017, over 5 billion people were dead.
The first world power to act in the wake of such devastation was India. Before Pakistan knew what was happening, the invasion was already over. The new Indian Empire consolidated under an oppressive new regime, realigning its political process under the guise of order and democracy of the people. Administrator Agneya Singh was quickly "elected" under a new constitution, and assumed "emergency powers for this time of crisis."
In the months following the devastation, South America became a haven for refugees, especially from the former NATO countries. Normally, this influx of desperate, hopeless people would have caused instability, but through cultural, spiritual, and ethical standards, the newcomers were integrated and the bonds of a new identity, forged in the face of apocalypse, arose. It took several years, but the countries in the area banded together, forming a new federation, the South American Confederation. With a constitution based on a combination of the various nation states, and strict democracy becoming enforced heavily on a cultural level, the new nation saw massive rebuilding and development begin to occur.
The final geopolitical force to arise from the ashes of the old world was Africa. In practice, it might have been a stretch to call it a unified force. Regardless, there was no doubt in anyone's mind that despite the many warlords and generals running around claiming authority, only one woman ruled Africa. Self-declared Queen Maritjie Dippenaar, First Warlord of the Legions of Apollyon, was the lunatic in charge of the asylum. The only saving grace for the rest of the world was the corruption, fragmentation, and constant struggle for supremacy from dozens of would-be rivals and assassins. It was only a matter of time for the others though, as Africa had the biggest surviving industrial base and the largest cohesive population.
It was in South America, at the end of 2024, that the scientists interpreted the first signs of a new area of physics--materials capable of redefining the physical rules that once stood firm. Ironically enough, it took the hydrogen bombs' widespread destruction to detect these new materials, and in the newsfeeds worldwide it was heralded as the dawn of a new age of humanity, albeit shadowed in horrible tragedy. And so it was, following all too brief joyous feeling of united humanity in beginning of 2025, that the three Terran power blocs, began their race to the stars.
Initial gains were slow. The three nations, having greatly limited access to research capabilities, struggled for years to crack the secret into making the wondrous Trans-Newtonian Minerals into viable materials for mass production. Tensions continued to rise between the three, almost culminating multiple times in armed conflict, but finally, the South American Confederation cracked the secret. It was swiftly followed by the Indian Empire, and by 2033 both nations were developing as rapidly as possible new engines to explore the distant worlds of the solar system. The First Great Space Race was on.
This time, India won, launching 4 of the Nirbhik class Geological Survey Vessels out into the solar system. Pulses skyrocketed in the other nations for a few days, but they quickly became convinced that the Nirbhik was not armed, and therefore only a threat economically in the rush to find more TN minerals. The Confederation quickly responded with two Parati class Exploration Ships, slower than their Indian counterparts but more capable when it came to surveying. The two different philosophies of the nations were quickly becoming apparent, even more so when the targets of the searches are considered. Unknown to each other, the Empire and the Confederation had very different ideas about what the future looked like. The Empire's mentality focused around exploitation of minerals, especially on the vast quantity of easily accessible asteroids in the system. Serious consideration was not given to colonization yet, rather than getting more of the minerals that would certainly run out on earth.
South America, on the other hand, was feeling the pressure from the tension of the other two nations. The African Union and the Indian Empire had been at each others' throats for a decade, content to ignore the smaller, less well armed nation. The balance had stood so far, but only because all three nations knew that any aggression must be met swiftly and firmly by both of the others. Even with Africa's terrifyingly huge build up of infantry and tanks, they were not big enough to overcome the defenses of the other two nations combined.
This situation could not last, however. South America, with the smallest industrial base and population, was trying to leverage its superior research facilities, but it was still falling behind India's superior researchers in several key areas. In light of this, they focused on establishing a power base elsewhere. Their geological surveys were focused entirely on planets and moons, particularly those they could colonize. In this, they failed miserably. Despite the wealth on Earth, the rest of the solar system was almost barren. Nothing on the moon or Mars, three minerals on Mercury, with one being "high accessibility" at 0.2. Venus had four minerals, with only a single 0.6 in addition to its 0.3 and two 0.1s. Europa had only one mineral at 0.4 accessibility. There was nothing else, anywhere inhabitable. Even sorium was woefully lacking, with only two of the four gas giants having any--Saturn with 5M at 0.3, and Neptune with 99k at 0.5. Depression was heavy on everyones' hearts in the Confederation capital of Sao Paulo.
The Indian Empire was finding the same shortcomings systemwide. It quickly found the wealth of the comets and some of the asteroids, but even with the tens of thousands of tons present at many of them, it would not be enough. Tensions began to rise again, and many civilians of the world, kept in the dark by propaganda, were not even aware of why.
June 8th, 2037. The day that everything changed. An impending boronide shortfall, combined with the completed geological survey, had led the Indians to the decision to militarize space as quickly as possible for the sake of securing as many minerals as the Empire could. Two Rana class Missile Bases came online that same fateful summer day. Any doubt the other two nations had to the intentions of the Ranas was quickly put to rest by the Indian Propaganda Minister. It was made clear, in no uncertain terms, that any extraplanetary mining site claimed by India was Indian territory and would be defended with the full force of the Indian military. The other nations protested vehemently, but no attacks were launched. For the moment, India had the upper hand. To Administrator Singh's credit, they did not push that too far. He understood clearly that another extended nuclear bombardment could all too easily wipe out the remnants of humanity, so the deterrent stick was enforced with a carrot--anything not possessing Indian people or equipment was fair game for the others, if only they could get there.
The magnanimous attitude of Singh's was not mirrored by African Queen Maritjie I or South American Primeiro-ministro Luis Caldeira. For the Queen, having recently broken through to the Trans-Newtonian technology, was desperate to maintain her grasp over Africa and not allow the other nations to intimidate, coerce, or, worst of all, conquer her lands. For decades, Africa was behind the other nations, entirely due to research deficiencies. No longer. She demanded research labs built, with as much industry continuing to convert as she dared. She would not be cowed into submission. She would fight, and gods willing, she would emerge victorious over her two rivals. For the time being, she was content to keep those emotions to herself. In diplomatic discussions, she emphasized the African Union's desire to only maintain sovereignty over her continent to the others. She found open ears in South America, even if India was more skeptical. And it had to be said, for all of the vast armies she had under her warlords, not a single armed conflict had erupted on earth in over twenty years. Maybe it was possible to avoid confrontation after all. Whatever anyone thought, Queen Maritjie I quietly ordered the development of the Osiris class Battlecruiser. It would be years, almost a decade, before it would be completed with the rudimentary research available to the Africans, but their labs would be of one mind in this. Content to let the others play their games in space, distracting their efforts, the Queen was patient. Her time would come.
South America, however, did not share the Queen of Africa's patience. Despite the continued peaceful diplomatic ties between it and the other two nations, no one in the government believed that ambition would always give way to humanism or even pragmatism like it had for India. Additionally, a strong fear existed that the wrong spark could end the human species forever. Tempered by the realization that it could easily doom humanity, the Confederation started research into tech that would allow them to selectively neutralize enemies, hopefully without any of the unfortunate side effects like widespread devastation and radiation poisoning. This dream was realized two and half years after the Indian Ranas went online. As a 2039 Christmas present to themselves, the South Americans presented to the world the Tapajo class Point Defense Base. Three of them, in fact. The exact weaponry was kept a closely guarded secret from the rest of the world, but they heavily hinted at nuclear retaliation capabilities. This was a misdirection. Each Tapajo was built around four quad meson turrets, each capable of firing every 10 seconds. The nature of the material penetrating mesons, combined with the natural armor of the Andes mountains in which they were housed, led to a confident belief among defense scientists that any Indian strike anywhere in the world could be neutralized, without any unreasonable amount of civilian casualties. The Indians, seeing the small size of the Tapajos (each was only 5,400 on their active scanners, compared to the 10,300 ton Ranas), took the South Americans at their word and assumed it was just enough launchers to ensure Mutually-Assured-Destruction existed. After all, the Indian scientists had been swearing for years that missiles were superior to any of the theoretical projectile or energy weapons in every way--those couldn't even operate in atmosphere! Unfortunately the Indian grad student in charge of meson research was more interested in studying biology and anatomy than weapon physics, so any hope of catching that error was buried underneath a pile of other responsibilities. In all of this, the Africans were unusually silent. Most analysts assumed they were attempting to develop a weapons platform of their own; correct, in a fashion. In private, the Queen of Africa was a bizarre mix of livid and hopefully with the revelation of the American bases. She felt even more vulnerable to the others, but her diplomats assured her that any aggression on India's part against Africa would be met with swift retaliation from America. The balance must continue, so she was content to continue waiting for her moment.
The next year, 2040, was momentous for several reasons, all of which favored India. While India had already set up a couple mining colonies systemwide, it took another huge step for humanity in the spring of that year. It dropped infrastructure on Luna, and within what seems like weeks, "independent" ships from the Indian "public company" Athani Shipping and Trading sprang into existence. India claimed Luna with a vengeance, quickly moving population up there in droves. Shortly after that, Indian "private companies" set up several mining facilities systemwide. Most importantly, unknown in part to either of the other nations, India had secured every major source of Boronide in the system. It controlled over 90% of the remaining stock, even factoring in what was left on Earth. India, of course, did not share this with the other nations.
The most momentous occurrence of 2040, however, was the introduction of the first true military spaceship. India had long had a history of dominating spaceflight by this point. When the Acheron class Light Cruiser launched on September 30th, 2040, there were only 3 non-Indian ships in the entirety of the solar system (all South American). This was compared to the 9 official Indian ships (5 Trinkat class Cargo Ships and the 4 Nirbhik class Geological Survey Vessels), plus their various "civilian" vessels, maybe a dozen colony and freight ships. These numbers are important to put into perspective, because India launched five of the Acherons at the same time.
The Acheron class is a smaller vessel, built on the same 4000 ton frame as the Nirbhiks. Several important differences however--the more efficient engines of the survey vessels gave way to more integrated and compact military grade engines, giving plenty of room for the two missile tubes each Acheron carried. Indian doctrine called for vast numbers of ships, so each of their shipyards had multiple slipways on which to lay down hulls. While this left smaller and less capable ships, India was not concerned about their dominance in space. Even though the Acherons did not have an active sensor capability on board, any military threat would almost certainly have to come from Earth and the active sensors on the Ranas were deemed more than enough for the time being. Plans for a new sensor platform were drawn up as a medium term solution, but the Albatross class Recon Frigate was not put into production at that time in order to get more of the Acherons out of their only (heavily slipweighed) military shipyard.
The final thing to happen in 2040 was a scientist in South America putting forth a new and exciting theory about the effects of Trans-Newtonian minerals and the fabric of space-time. He proposed that there could be "jump points," areas of space weak enough from solar gravitational pressures that ships could punch through into another nearby solar system. Further research was required, of course. So began the Second Great Space Race.
With Africa once again on the sidelines watching, India and America worked tirelessly to be the first to discover and exploit the new theory. All three nations, while still comfortable from the wealth of the Earth, were well aware of the vast mineral wealth that could be uncovered across the stars. Queen Maritijie I seethed with envy over once again missing out on the initial pickings, but consoled herself with the inevitable comeuppance each of her rivals had on the way. Over the next two years, the nations struggled, each getting the much-needed research that fit their long term goals, and it was another year before the first fruits of that labor emerged--the Brahmaputra class Gravitational Survey Vessel. India once again beat America to the punch, and once again leveraged their massive shipyards to pump out ships. Four of the Brahmaputras were unleashed on the same day, spreading out through the solar system to quickly do their scans. This time, however, the Americans were right on their heels. Two of the Parati 2.0(R) class Exploration Ships launched less than two weeks later. While the Indian ships were capable of over 210 billion kilometers, much more than the 180 billion km of the Paratis, the American vessels had almost 14% more speed. The contest raced forward into the next stage, seeing who could discover the future of humanity's salvation.
The discovery of the first jump point proved to be one of the most significant events in human history. It wasn't so much the existence of jump points (very important!). It wasn't the even presence of a terrestrial planet within the jump point that was almost perfect for human habitation. It was the jump gate constructed on top of the jump point that shook the world and turned everything on its head. Proof. Definitive proof of extraterrestrial existence. And it was in the home star system of the human race. Policymakers worldwide (the discovery was too big for India, the original discoverer, to keep quiet) had many long nights working out what to do for first contact situations, and other contingencies. Humanity would never be the same.
The race to discover new jump points continued. After they passed 3 jump points, they were starting to feel ecstatic--plenty of potential space to jump into, even if most of them didn't have jump gates yet. After 5 jump points, apprehension was building. What if Sol was some kind of interstellar hub for travel? This was confirmed in many people's minds with the discovery of the 6th jump point. This one too had a jump gate already on it--two alien constructions pre-existing in Sol! How long had they been there? Was something going to come out of them?
As it turned out, Sol had 7 jump points. Soon, both India and America had at least transited the two jump gates, into Barnard's Star and Wolf 359. Barnard's Star was a very small system with only three planets, all of which would fit inside Mercury's orbit in Sol. The farthest was only 56M kilometers from the thankfully very dim, very small red dwarf star. Of the three planets, two were gas giants, which later scans revealed to be completely devoid of TNMs. This meant the only thing of any note was Barnard's Star II, a terrestrial planet with a very faint existing oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere only a little ways below the temperature tolerance range of humanity. Fairly easy to terraform, and scans revealed that it had 12.5M tons of Duranium and 10M tons of Sorium. Unfortunately, these were both at 0.1, but given the lack of sorium in Sol, this was proof that at least there would be a decent supply if absolutely necessary, if someone should claim the planet soon. Wolf 359 is a more interesting find. Twelve planets, dozens of moons and asteroids, and eight potential sites for human inhabited colonies. Unfortunately, none of these sites were particularly good for colonization--only two could ever be human perfect, and that would take extreme effort. Still, preliminary geosurvey results have been very positive, with millions of at least middling accessibility for several key minerals, including duranium, boronide, and corundium.
In a rare win for the Americans, early January 2045 saw the unveiling of the Pampeiro class Jump Scouts. They were small and unassuming, 4500 tons with little more than a commercial engine and a commercial jump drive. But, they were cheap, quick to research, and quick to make, and they paid off vast dividends. Within four months, the jump scouts had transited all 5 unexplored jump points, and very roughly mapped out what each contained. No geosurvey information is currently available.
JP1: Lalande 21185 - Unassuming star, with one planet and 5 comets. Speculation in astrogeological circles places high mineral value on the comets, given experiences in Sol. The planet is very close to the very dim star, at only 9.1M orbital distance. With a gravity of two, atmospheric pressure of 168, and a surface temp of 772.9, it is not a very inviting planet. However, it could be a decent place to have automining facilities on the comets mass drive their minerals, and it might even have TNMs itself.
JP2: Proxima Centauri - Similary to Wolf 359, with 7 planets, and dozens of moons and asteroids. Highly interesting find: a derelict wreck drifts in the inner system, inside the orbit of planet IV. The wreck is 9000 tons, so bigger than any non-commercial vessel in Sol space. It seems too small to be a commercial vessel, although the possibility that it is a survey vessel can't be ruled out. Plans are drawn up to research salvaging ships for possible exploitation of this discovery.
JP3: Barnard's Star, above
JP4 & 5: Sirius and Alpha Centauri, much more interesting, and will be discussed soon.
JP6: Ross 128 - Seven planets, several dozen moons, one potential but difficult perfect human world, with a half dozen nonperfect terraforming targets. The real draw in this system is the 160 asteroids floating around the sun. Another small system, with the farthest object less than a billion km in orbital radius.
JP7: Wolf 359, above
When Capitao-de-Corveta Ernesto Murillo Gamez, captain of the JSC Pampeiro 001, first jumped into Sirius, he was a little unimpressed. Binary star, the A component only has one venusian-type planet with two moons. B component has 5 planets with 69 moons between them. Almost easy to overlook, but Captain Gamez looked a bit closer and saw that 5 of the moons were terraformable to human range tolerances, and another 5 moons weren't perfectly terraformable but could definitely be the site of some genetically modified denizens. 10 potentially habitable planets within a 620M km radius...this has some fantastic potential, economically as well as astrogeologically. Unfortunately, the lack of asteroids or comets limits some of the easier mining potential, and the B component's orbit will eventually take it 9B kilometers away from the Sol jump point. Still, Sirius looks like it has some serious potential. Captain Gamez is relieved of command for making that pun.
Capitao-de-Corveta Nelson Santos, commanding officer of the JSC Pampeiro 002, discovered Alpha Centauri. Binary star, 6 comets, over 2 dozen asteroids...these parts are fairly mundane. However, Alpha Centauri has, between the two component suns, 12 planets with 77 moons. Alpha Centauri A-II is near perfect, with a colony cost of 0.49. Additionally, Alpha Centauri B-IV-Moon 7 is only lacking oxygen to make it a perfect world. Finally, Captain Santos found something fairly unique--a terraformable asteroid. The asteroid, creatively named Asteroid #6 of the B-Component, has a surface temp of -18.6, and no atmosphere. It could be very interesting to develop that soon. Altogether, Alpha Centauri has 3 close to perfect bodies, in addition to 3 that could be made perfect with enough time. Four more bodies could be made perfect for a bioengineered race with higher cold tolerances. As the final cherry on top, a wreck is also in Alpha Centauri, with a size of 17,800 tons. This would undoubtedly reveal some very useful and interesting technology...
The date is April 22nd, 2045. In the past 4 months, the South American Confederation has gained a huge negotiating leg up on the Indian Empire. The Confederation has just under 900 million people, with 10 research labs, 638 construction factories, and 488 mines. They have 10 ships--2 freighters, 2 colony ships, 2 jump scouts, 2 gravsurvey ships, and 2 geosurvey ships--in addition to the 3 Meson bases on Earth. Diplomats and bureaucrats are already trying to come up with ways to annex Alpha Centauri, and keep the other two Solarian nations out of it. They are considering three options--1) approach India with the offer of giving them Sirius, with its serious potential for close range terraforming, and as a sweetener offering them the derelict in Proxima Centauri as free salvage, 2) calling a diplomatic summit between the 3 nations, to negotiate with a heavy hand and hopefully gain Africa's support in forcing India to bow, and 3) preemptively striking against the Indian Empire with meson fire. Military analysts believe that the ten 4000 ton warships that the Indians have been sending on blatant training missions around Earth are too small to have decent active sensors, leaving only the Rana PDCs. With the meson cannons, it should be possible to completely cripple the Indians before they can even get a shot off. That just leaves the ground forces, but Primeiro-ministro Caldeira hopes that a ceasefire can commence after the Indians realize that they've lost. This won't do much for immediate relations, but hopefully in time that can be mended. Alpha Centauri looks like too big a jewel to let out of grasp.
Africa has been biding its time carefully. The Queen, First Warlord of the Legions of Apollyon, Empress of the Savanna, Duchess of Sand and Fire, sees the options ahead with a military glint in her eye. There is little doubt that she will need to bring the others down to size at the earliest opportunity, and is thinking about making overtures to the South Americans for an offensive war against the growing military and economic might of India. Africa has yet to launch a single ship, but with 75 maintenance facilities, 950 construction factories, 490 mines, and 15 research labs, she is gearing up to conquer. She has come a long way since the 2 research labs she started with. She has the biggest armies, but they are low tech. Still, with 17 legions of armor and 14 legions of infantry, the deterrent power of that many raw people is powerful. The Osiris class Battlecruiser is almost fully complete, and the Aucamp-Erasmus Shipyard has been designed to pump them out fast, with 3 slipways of 15,000 capacity.
The Indian Empire, under the watchful eye of Administrator Agneya Singh, has keep close tabs on its neighbors. Spies have attempted to keep abreast of all the major happenings, but recently the entire Indian spy network got a shock when it discovered the Project 2401: Osiris in Africa. Singh has no doubt at all that the Africans mean to declare war when profitable to do so, and with that in mind, a military strike has to be taken into account. Singh is still not comfortable firing missiles at the Earth, given the results from almost 30 years ago, but he sees little option, as the Indians are still convinced that energy and projectile weapons cannot work in atmosphere. He is playing with the idea of a diplomatic summit to unilaterally disarm Africa, and believes that South America shares his opinion that more devastation would be a bad thing. Ultimately, Singh believes it is India's destiny to rule the Earth as one united people, and given that he has as many warships as South America has total ships, he is disinclined to be swayed from his opinions. His military advisers are warning him that he still cannot project power at all without a mobile active sensor platform, but he's unconcerned. Not even evidence of alien artifacts and ruins could sway his mind from this. India has humanity's only extraplanetary colonies. Luna is at 33M people, Mars (which India picked up sometime in the last 5 years) is at 15M people, and India has two comets as automated mining colonies. Additionally, there are 6 civilian mining colonies, with 19 civilian mines between them. India has 3 shipping lines, with a combined total of 28 ships, which are mostly colony ships. It also has 32 ships under direct control--6 colony ships, 8 cargo ships, 4 gravsurvey ships, 4 geosurvey ships, and 10 of the Acheron class Light Cruiser--as well as the 2 Rana PDCs that caused so much controversy. They are unaware of it, but they currently have the lowest amount of research labs, at 8, construction facilities, at 576, and mines at 424. To be fair, if you count CMCs, that adds an additional 190 mines, which is technically more than anyone else. It is just costing them wealth (which they have huge amounts of, thanks to trade) to extract it.
What will happen next? Will Earth survive the coming storm? Are aliens living among us? In all seriousness, I've had more fun with a multination start than I ever expected I would. It adds immediate tension, a fight for resources and a fight to get to the asteroids as soon as possible. I didn't expect some of the shortfalls that came up, but it has definitely been a learning experience! I hope you enjoyed Part 1 of Centauri Dreaming!
Part 2 is here.
Edit: Grammar and such.
submitted by Malikane7 to aurora [link] [comments]

Fundamentals of Trading

Fundamentals of Trading submitted by Enrich_Broking to u/Enrich_Broking [link] [comments]

/r/AskHistorians Guide on Finding Family Military Service Records and Military Identification

Hello everyone! We get a fair number of questions here the relate to family history, and specifically military service. There is often little that can be done however, aside from pointing someone in the right direction for their own research, so with that in mind, I've been working for the past few weeks on putting together a guide on retrieving military service records, as well as identifying from photos or uniforms just what Gramps or Grams was doing in the war. This guide will be permanently available on our Wiki (And don't forget to try /Genealogy too for these things!), but it is still a work in progress.
I'd first like to give a major shout-out to the users who helped me by writing out the procedures for several foreign countries I was unfamiliar with (See below), as well as all the flairs who offered their advice and critique. There is still more to add, so I welcome additions from countries that are not yet listed, or suggestions for how to improve sections already here, since I might have made a mistake or two. I'd especially welcome improved resources for the non-American Identification sections, as in many cases I was hard pressed to find quality material to include.
Anyways, without further ado, here you go!

United States

Requesting Records:

The US government makes available the basic records of service members to next of kin through the National Archives and Records Administration. The most common request is for the DD-214, Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty (or earlier, comparable document). As the next of kin, this can be requested online through the National Archives free of charge. Some records are made available online through the Archival Databases.
Be aware that, due to a fire in 1973, the records available are incomplete, with a significant amount of loss occurring for US Army records during World War II (Other branches were not affected). The government has done their best to reconstruct the data from other sources, but it is quite possible that a request cannot be fulfilled, so take that into account when you submit the request for a DD-214.
If you are not the next-of-kin (researching an uncle, for instance), since records that are 62+ years old are considered archival, they are accessible to the general public (which you count as if you are not a parent/spouse/child/sibling), but as a non-relation, require a fee, which varies with the amount of paperwork requested. Non-next of kin must use the SF-180 form to request the records. Full procedure can be found here.
For records of service prior to World War I, however, the process is slightly different, and while still ordered online, it is done through here, and there is a fee attached regardless of being related or not. An alternative, although not always guaranteed, is to go through a service such as, which has digitized tons and tons of records and makes them available to their paying subscribers. You can often find muster rolls and other military records in their collection, spanning from the Revolution up through World War II. While there is a cost associated with the service, they offer free trials, and often open up the military records to free accounts on military holidays such as Memorial Day or Veterans Day.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Medals/Ribbons/Decorations
Army Army Insignia, see also Army Campaign, Service, and Personal Decorations
Navy Navy Insignia Navy Medals and Ribbons
Marines Marine Insignia Marine Awards and Decorations
Air Force See Army pre-1947 Air Force Insignia Air Force Awards and Decorations
Coast Guard Coast Guard Insignia USCG Awards (See also US Navy)

For Units and other Info, See Also:

US Army Branch Insignia, US Army Division Insignia, US Army Brigade Insignia, US Army Field Group and Field Army Insignia, Other US Army Insignia, Obsolete Badges and Awards, WWI Era Markings.
US Navy Badges, List of US Navy Ships, Naval Squadrons and Inactive Squadrons, WWI Era Markings.
US Marine Corps Regimental Insignias, USMC Badges
US Air Force Squadron Emblems, US Air Force Badges
US Coast Guard Units, Insignia, Badges, and other Information


Requesting Records

Library and Archives Canada holds records for Canadian military service dating back to the 1700s, and are working to digitize their records, with much of that from 1918 and earlier already accessible online here. Records from post-1918 are restricted, and may only be accessed under certain conditions, but is accessible to the veteran themselves, or next of kin if deceased. If you wish to request copies of military service files for post-1918, including World War II, you can find more information on the process here.
As with American records, an alternative, although not always guaranteed, is to go through a service such as, which has digitized tons and tons of records and makes them available to their paying subscribers. While there is a cost associated with the service, they offer free trials, and often open up the military records to free accounts on military holidays.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Awards
Canadian Army Canadian Army Insignia Current Awards and Medals and Decorations
Royal Canadian Navy, for post-1950 see here Navy Ranks Current Awards and Medals and Decorations
Royal Canadian Air Force RCAF Ranks, see also Current Awards and Medals and Decorations

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Canadian Army Rank and Appointment Insignia, Canadian Army Cap Badges, and more! World War I Patches.
Royal Canadian Navy Trade Badges, Index of Ships, Fleet air Arm Crests
RCAF Crests, Logos and Insignia

United Kingdom

Requesting Records

Military service records from prior to 1920 are available through the British National Archives, specifically for World War I service, and for service through 1913. Much of the information is accessible online through or, which do involve fees, although the sites offer free trial periods and periodically make military records free to everyone for certain holidays. Documents can be accessed free of charge by visiting the Archives, but copies do cost money, whether done in person or by request Be aware that some records may have been destroyed by during the bombings of London in World War II.
Post-1920 records are requested from the UK Government, and can be requested by the next of kin. The spouse of a service member may request the records if they are deceased (and the service member themselves), but all other persons pay a £30 fee.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Rank Awards
British Army Army Ranks, see also Current Awards, and Medal Ribbons
Royal Navy Navy Ranks Medal Ribbons
Royal Marines RM Ranks Medal Ribbons
RAF RAF Ranks, see also Medal Ribbons

For Units and other Info, See Also:

British Army Corps and Regimental Insignia, British Army Division and Brigade Insignia, Regiments c. WWI, WWII Era Formation Badges, Standards and Cap Badges. For Victorian Era Ranks.
Royal Navy and Royal Marine Badges, Royal Navy Badges and Insignia, Royal Navy Ships, Ship and Sub Badges, Fleet Air Arm Badges.
Royal Marine Unit Insignia, and Badges Generally.
Royal Air Force Badges and Insignia, Distinguishing Insignia, Squadron Crests, List of Squadrons, Air Historical Branch


Requesting Records

Australian military records can be found through both the Australian War Memorial and the National Archives of Australia. Records for more recent service are requested through the Department of Defense.
The Australian War Memorial provides for the searching of various rolls, and provides basic biographical information off of them, such as with this example or this one. Many of the records are digitized.
The National Archives of Australia holds service records from the through World War II. Boer War, World War I, and World War II records are digitized and can be viewed online. Navy Officers and Petty and Enlisted Men are digitized as well in a separate collection. To order physical copies of documents, select "Request a Copy" on the Item Detail Page in RecordSearch
Korean and Vietnam records are held by the Department of Defence. They are searchable, but the original documents are not digitiezed. Copies can be requested through the National Archives of Australia.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Insignia Awards
Australian Army Ranks Medals and Awards
Royal Australian Navy Ranks Medals and Awards
Royal Australian Air Force Ranks Medals and Awards

See Also:

"It's An Honour", "Researching Australian Military Service, Australian Campaign Medals, AIF Badges, Badges and Emblems
List of RAN Ships, Navy Badges
RAAF Squadrons and Crests, RAAF Squadron Badges.

New Zealand

Requesting Records

Archives New Zealand holds NZ Military files through World War II, collected into various series, which can be accessed on their website. Most documents through World War I are digitized, and original documents can be accessed in person at the Archives:
Archives New Zealand, National Office, Wellington 10 Mulgrave Street Wellington 6011 04 499 5595 [email protected] 
Copies may be made of the documents during your visit using personal cameras.
Many World War II Files are in the New Zealand Defence Force Archives, and are not all digitized. They can be accessed in person at the Archives, or copies requested by contacting them at:
NZDF Archives Personnel Enquiries Trentham Military Camp Private Bag 905, Upper Hutt 5140 04 527 5280 [email protected] 
Some digitized files can be viewed through the Auckland War Memorial Museum.
In the case of a person killed in action, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission includes a searchable database of all persons killed in action in the various British and Commonwealth forces during the World Wars, which includes some information.
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

Ranks and Awards

See British Rank Insignia. New Zealand Ribbons / Medals

For Units and other Info, See Also:

New Zealand at War, Veteran's Affairs
NZ Corps Badges, WWII Patches


Requesting Records

For records prior to 1900, the best sources are the Central Bureau for Genealogy (CBG) and the National Archives (NA). The CBG website is easy to use; for the NA you may find contacting them by phone or mail easier. The Netherlands Institute of Military History (NIMH) also may have some information, though "[w]hat the NIMH mainly has to offer is a wealth of general information about life in the military in the past". Note that the information provided here has been taken from the various NIMH pages available via the link above.
There are a few specialized databases, such as this one containing information concerning sea-voyagers (including soldiers) upon ships between 1700 and 1795 who sailed to the Orient, a database of Dutch soldiers in service of Napoleon 1810-1813, and Officers' name and rank lists (1725-1989) (the latter two only available in-person at the NIMH).
For records of people born after 1900 you have to contact the Semi-static Archives Services of the Ministry of Defence. This can only be done in writing. You need to include the full name and date of birth of the person you are looking for, as well as a copy of your own identity document. The address is:
Netherlands Ministry of Defence Afdeling Semi-Statische Archiefdiensten (SSA) (Semi-static Archives Services) P.O. Box 7000 6460 NC Kerkrade Netherlands 
There are separate records for members of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) born after 1900. These records are kept by the Stichting Administratie Indonesische Pensioenen (SAIP) (Foundation for Registration of Indonesian Pensions) (link in Dutch)
(Kudos to Polybios)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

For World War II Era Army, Naval, and Air Force Insignia, see here. Additionally, many Dutch pilots flew in squadrons organized by other allied powers. For Dutch India Colonial Insignia. Handboek Onderscheidingen (Handbook Decorations [PDF, Dutch] includes pictures of all medals and ribbons awarded to Dutch military personnel.

See Also:

Orders, Decorations and Medals of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch Ribbons, Military Insignia
Ships of the RNN


Requesting Records

A lot of the records up to WWI have been digitalised and published on the sites of the Archives Départementales.
To find the man you're looking for, you need to know 1) his year of birth, 2) where he was living when he was 20.
Once you know that, you calculate his "classe", which is his birth year + 20 years. Then you find from which "Bureau" his location depended from (a few Bureaux were set in a different département). Using the "Tables alphabétiques", you find his "numéro matricule" (serial number), then in the "Registres matricules", you find his personal record using said number.
Records for people born after 1901 are not publically available, so you have to prove your close family link with the person, unless you can prove that he's been dead for more than 25 years.
Mémoire des hommes has databases for the soldiers dead during the 20th century wars and war burials. You can also find the regiment diaries for WWI, and part of the (currently being indexed) registries for Napoleon's army.
La base Léonore contains the files for the recipients of the Légion d'honneur who died before 1977. (Some files have been lost, though.)
The Red Cross files for the WWI prisoners are available on the ICRC.
(Kudos to snakeling)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Ranks Awards
French Army Pre-1914, WWI Officer and WWI Enlisted, WWII Awards
French Navy Insignia Awards
French Air Force Insignia Awards

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Army Collar Insignia, Beret Insignias
Air Force Insignia


Requesting Records

For members of the former Wehrmacht, one can request all of their records with the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt). However, it is not possible to obtain records of surviving combatants without their permission. It is only possible to obtain information on members of the former Wehrmacht who died either in the field or in captivity, and then only with permission from the next of kin. There is an associated cost, depending on the difficulty and amount of records requested, but it is around 20€ to 30€.
The Federal Archive - Branch Office Ludwigsburg (Central Office for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes, e-mail: l[email protected]) houses data on units involved in war crimes, the scenes of these crimes, suspects and culprits, as well as persons who were mentioned in the investigations of said crimes. Therefore, it might be useful to check these archives if the searched person was part of units suspected of war crimes.
The Federal Archive - Department MA (Military Archives) houses files on :
However, this needs to be taken with a grain of salt. The Department MA has lost vast amounts of its files due to war. Most of the files are war diaries written by army commanders and files on the navy.
Department R (Reich) has the largest pool of documents (from almost all eras), but these are mainly of a civil administrative nature (justice, finance, etc.).
Kirchlicher Suchdienst is focused on persons from the former eastern territories, the Balkans or the Baltic states. It also has an archive of letters, including letters from war captivity. May be costy.
Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. an provide useful information when looking for war graves.
Additionally, the German Red Cross Tracing Service offers services that allow one to trace any missing person, be it civilian or military. This may not be the best place to look for military records, but it is a good start nonetheless.
(Kudos to ScanianMoose)

IDing Photos or Uniforms:

If you are looking to try and identify information based off of a uniform or from a photograph, these resources may prove to be of use.

Ranks and Awards

Branch Insignia Awards
German Army Deutsches Heer, Reichswehr, Heer Imperial, Third Reich
German Navy Kaiserliche Marine, Kriegsmarine Imperial, Third Reich
German Air Force Luftwaffe Third Reich
Waffen-SS Insignia Third Reich

For Units and other Info, See Also:

Badges, Insignia, and Other Stuff, Wehrmacht and SS Militaria
(1871-1918) German Army & Navy Uniforms & Insignia
Kaiserliche Marine Badges,
submitted by Georgy_K_Zhukov to AskHistorians [link] [comments]

Weekly Roundup | Random Chat | Notifications

News roundup for the previous week.
In International news
  1. Thai PM Set to Speed Up #Thailand China Railway Project: -speed train project between Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima province is part of the rail project primarily designed to link southwest China's Yunnan province with northeastern Thailand via northern Laos
  2. It's unfair to single out Chinese-Australians on political donations | Jieh-Yung Lo | Australia news
  3. It is believed the commander of the Fitzgerald and people found liable will be punished. We hope all US warships in the West Pacific should draw a lesson from the incident, not only for their own safety, but also for the peace of the sea passages in the region.
  4. Chinese citizen shot dead in Laos: The Chinese embassy has asked the Lao side to break the case as soon as possible, punish the assailants while taking effective measures to ensure safety of Chinese citizens and institutions in Laos
  5. China travel agencies and Crimea
  6. Presidential Political and Media Advisor Bouthaina Shaaban discussed on Saturday with China’s Special Envoy to Syria Xie Xiaoyan and the accompanying delegation enhancing the relations between the two countries.
  7. Chinese National Games invites overseas Chinese athletes for first time
  8. "While I greatly appreciate the efforts of President Xi & China to help with North Korea, it has not worked out. At least I know China tried!" - Donald Trump (lmao)
  9. Trump Announces He's Cancelling Obama's 'Completely One-Sided Deal With Cuba' (How can China trust any agreement with the U.S. if every change in government there is this possibility?)
  10. US says China should contribute more to fight against terror
  11. AIIB approves Argentina, Madagascar and Tonga as new members
  12. Germany Warns U.S. Against Ceding Lead Role to China, Russia: Wolfgang Schaeuble, Germany’s veteran finance minister, urged the U.S. to limit Russian and Chinese influence or risk bringing about “the end of our liberal world order.”
  13. Paris climate deal would have given India and China free pass: Mike Pence
  14. Spotlight: China, U.S. hold "constructive and fruitful" dialogue on diplomatic, security issues
  15. Ex-CIA officer charged with spying for China
  16. China's Growing Influence On Middle East Shouldn't Be Lost On An Impulsive Trump Administration. If Washington resorts to simplified, binary decision making regarding complex, multifaceted issues, it will be out maneuvered by Beijing
  17. Russia-China rivalry in Central Asia overblown: view of a "lingering rivalry between Russia and China" often overlooks the transparent dialogue. Russia's rather bilateral relationship with Central Asia, with a focus on security-related issues, does not conflict with China's trade projects
  18. China’s encroachment into Latin America: The Beijing regime seeks to undercut traditional American influence in the hemisphere. China places a priority on strengthening Latin America’s anti-democrats and is using its growing economic power in the region to expand its strategic options
  19. Chinese community reacts to ABC-Fairfax political donations series
  20. U.S. navy (w/ congress' support) strives to maintain dominance over China
  21. Panamanian President, Juan Carlos Varela, discusses renewed relations with China
  22. China Pushes U.S. Aside in Pakistan: “The Chinese are winning the perceptions game, whatever the reality. That then leads to political outcomes, because people see the inevitability of China’s rise and China’s power,” said Ely Ratner of the Council on Foreign Relations
In Domestic news
  1. China’s PLA ‘to play bigger role in boosting Hong Kong patriotism’
  2. From pig farmer to one of China’s highest-paid online authors: Li Zhi
  3. Increasingly Affluent Chinese Want Healthier Food and that Has Big Implications for Meat Producers
  4. Hong Kong youths turn their backs on Chinese identity: survey - Only 3.1 percent of Hong Kong youths identify themselves as "Chinese", a historic low, as the former British colony prepares to celebrate the 20th anniversary of its return to Chinese rule, a poll released on Tuesday suggests.
  5. Toothpick crossbow craze has China quivering
  6. Green finance to help reduce pollution, boost industrial upgrading
  7. China to levy 100% tax on overseas football transfers - China will effectively double the cost for its clubs to buy foreign football players in a move aimed at slowing the influx of pricey overseas stars and encouraging homegrown talent
  8. Chinese public criticizes calls from UN to take refugees
  9. Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam on claims China is tightening its grip: "Give us the evidence"
  10. China's Xi visit to Hong Kong confirmed: report
  11. More than 140 missing after landslide engulfs mountain village in China
  12. earthrise - China's Transport Revolution
  13. Chinese Bankers Flock to Hong Kong as Expats Retreat: scores of mainland professionals are filling the elite financial ranks of Hong Kong, while a series of lay-offs at Western banks has led to an exodus of expatriates
In SciTech news
  1. Quantum internet: China smashes record for beaming entangled particles
  2. China's two supercomputers still world's fastest as U.S. squeezed out of 3rd place
  3. Chinese scientists to grow potatoes on the moon: will be sealed inside a "mini ecosystem" as part the Chang'e-4 mission due to launch next year
  4. Traditional Chinese medicine might be effective as a complement or alternative to traditional Western medicine for primary and secondary prevention of heart disease, according to a state of the art review paper published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  5. China successfully launches x-ray satellite: will search the sky for black holes, neutron stars, and other extremely energetic phenomena. Last of four missions covered under China’s 12th 5-year plan. Other three are a dark matter probe, microgravity experiments, and long-range quantum entanglement
  6. China's first cargo spacecraft, Tianzhou-1, has successfully completed its second refuelling of the Tiangong-2 space lab in orbit, further proving a process being tested as part of plans for a large, modular space station
  7. China's Three Major Telecom Operators Will Start #5G Pre-Commercial Deployment Within Two Years: China Unicom will consider selecting two to four cities to carry out technology and network verification of 5G in the second half of this year
  8. China now ranks as the most influential country in 4 of 8 core scientific fields, tying with the U.S., according to the Japan Science and Technology Agency. Computer science, mathematics, materials science and engineering. "I was not expecting China to overtake the U.S. in many fields" said Yuko Ito
  9. Tech giants in China convene for one day to share their plans
  10. China propels rise of electric ultra-high-performance cars
  11. Meet the Chinese Finance Giant That’s Secretly an AI Company: The smartphone payments business Ant Financial is using computer vision, natural language processing, and mountains of data to reimagine banking, insurance, and more
  12. China's big investment, "brain gains" lead to scientific breakthroughs: From world's largest radio telescope, collecting samples of combustible ice, to the successful transmission of "entangled" photon pairs from space, achievements made by Chinese scientists have been drawing worldwide attention
  13. In China, a robot has started delivering packages to people
  14. China cracks down on fake peer reviews - Funding agencies announce harsh penalties and stronger policing efforts.
  15. In 2015, China's biomedical research teams ranked No. 4 on the top 10 list for the total number of new discoveries published in six top-tier journals. In 2000, China didn't even make the top 10 - JCI Insight. China spent 75% of what the U.S. spent on total R&D in 2015. In 2000, China spent 12%
  16. Piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered flexible sensors: small size factor, simple structure, and long-term stability make them favorable for use in powering micro/nanosystems, various small power consumer devices, remote and mobile sensors, and even wearable wireless electronics
  17. Hyundai partners with Baidu in car navigation system: Navigation systems equipped in Hyundai cars sold in China will feature the Baidu MapAuto and Duer OS Auto systems
  18. Scientists from several U.S. and Chinese universities say new findings about microbes and their interaction with other species show that Darwin's theory of evolution needs an update
In Economic news
  1. Tesla nearing deal to build factory in China, but will need to partner with local producer to do so. Is this a way for China to acquire IP? China is not keen to easily give away key markets, especially electric cars. is this a trojan horse strategy?
  2. Foreign investors bet billions on China blue-chips joining MSCI index
  3. Multinationals losing battle for Chinese consumers
  4. Chinese theme parks dominate top 20 in Asia-Pacific ranking: Although Japanese parks took the top three spots, Chinese destinations filled out 11 of the top 20 in the Asia-Pacific ranking
  5. US President Donald Trump has forced the American car giant Ford to shift production from Mexico, to China.
  6. China applying for more patents than ever before as companies push to innovate, protect brands: Enforcement via litigation can only occur if a patent is in force. Although around a quarter of all patents in force in 2015 were in the US, China’s share is growing fast, almost 1.5m from 600,000 in 2010
  7. Building stronger brands will boost China's image
  8. Ford's Signal to the Auto World: Here Comes China
  9. Chinese factories are eagerly enlisting robots to address worker shortages and automation needs, prompting Japanese manufacturers to scramble to boost output
  10. Russia offers China joint development of engines for civil aviation: “We proposed to the Chinese that we jointly create an engine for a long-haul aircraft based on the Russian PD-14 engine," Rostec spokesperson Viktor Kladov told RIA Novosti
  11. Is China the Most Protectionist Country? No, Not By a Long Shot
  12. Inevitable Chinese slowdown 'a myth'
  13. West should be more concerned with its debts than China’s
  14. Western brands risk alienating China’s young consumers with campaigns that play to Western clichés. If you compare metro systems, China’s is not only more modern, it is cleaner, faster and on time. That’s why Chinese milleninals find it frustrating to see China painted only with a prism of the past
  15. Jack Ma: This is what to study if you want a high-paying job in the future
  16. Chinese salaries has increased a lot duing the last decade
  17. Chinese electric bus firm staying out of North America
In Military news
  1. Chinese military is officially recognizing the existence of the new Chinese ZTQ and has even given it a name; Xinqingtan. The ZTQ was designed for rough, mountainous terrain as found in Tibet and the mountainous jungles on Vietnamese border
  2. A more loyal PLA rebuffs the heresy of separating the Party and military
  3. China to set up military bases in Pakistan - Pentagon report
  4. China, #Finland willing to advance military cooperation: Niinisto said Finland highly values the collaboration with China in various areas including national defense and military, and is willing to work with Chinese partners to further develop the relations between the armies of the two sides
  5. American and Chinese aircraft could be flying 4,000 miles per hour by 2030: CASIC debuted the Teng Yun spacecraft design during the Global Space Exploration 2017. CASC's hypersonic spaceplane, announced in August 2016. Its engine and other critical technology are slated for completion by 2020
  6. China 'deploys submarine-hunting aircraft to South China Sea' in defiance of US warnings
  7. China may have the world’s most powerful submarine detector
Other Notables
  1. Does the current Chinese leadership make offerings at the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor? (as Qin Shi Huang to Mao Ze Dong did)
  2. Cultural confidence plays vital role in China’s further development
  3. Dress show combining traditional and contemporary styles held at princely mansion
  4. The Glory of Daming Palace
  5. A total of 73.7 percent of people support providing Good Samaritans with rewards when they take a stand against injustice, according to a survey conducted by the Social Survey Center of China Youth Daily and online survey platform
  6. Western hypocrisy and historical revisionism regarding Hong Kong
  7. Lin Shan Ju – Homophobic Taiwanese White Supremacist and Ex-Candidate of the One Nation Party
  8. Master Jiang and the Six Kingdoms (Release 2018)
  9. Contact Fairfax Directly and Protest at their mistreatment of the Australian Chinese Community
  10. Pamela Anderson promised to write a love letter to the nation of China and visit the country if the Chinese government and people supported Assange’s release (we have to get this most important of news to President Xi)
  11. Little Hong Kong girl with a big voice handles pressure and critics with aplomb, father says: Family support behind why nine-year-old Celine Tam Tsz-kwan has the confidence of an adult superstar. “We as parents are just trying hard to give her the best of what she has always wanted,” Steve Tam
  12. Beijing strengthens protection of historical buildings: This year, Xicheng and Dongcheng districts in the center of the city will take measures to relocate current residents from 26 historical buildings, such as ancient guild halls, temples, and former residences of historical figures
  13. Zeus can throw lightning bolts, Yahweh (the Christian God) causes mega floods, but what does the Jade Emperor have in terms of supernatural powers?
  14. Making the OnePus 5
  15. Is there someone who will always hold your hand, regardless of old age or disease, until death do you apart?
  16. Samples of sea cucumbers collected by China's manned submersible Jiaolong after its dive in Yap Trench
  17. Little Orphan Island on the Yangtze River, 1870s
  18. Voice of China: US should look in the mirror before lecturing the world on human rights
  19. The Swiss Witnesses to China’s Cultural Revolution
  20. Forever Chang’an
  21. Voice of China: US should look in the mirror before lecturing the world on human rights
  22. Determined actions to frustrate the imperial machinations of the US on the ground should be matched with strong words. The China-Russia nexus must not only articulate their vision for a new international order but also expose the hurdles that stand in its way without mincing any words.
  23. Review: Wait, Was That Confucius? PBS’s Rushed ‘Story of China’
  24. Butt hurt writer is angry at Europeans for observing Chinese sovereignty
  25. Chinese - The Sinitic Languages
  26. Newsweek Ponders: how separate is hong kong to china?
  27. How Russians succeed in Chinese Kung fu
  28. Biography of Yellow Turban leader Bo Cai
  29. He Was Bullied as a Kid For Being Chinese, Now He's the Black Power Ranger
  30. Good books on Chinese politics?
  31. Warning: Graphic Images Whales massacred by locals on beach in Faroe Islands (I sure hope Chinese media reported this story for the reasons I think they should)
  32. Today: Sino-Soviet split, June 22 Remember: every day is history.
  33. The Forbidden City
  34. Father and daughter run for challenge: Running together has allowed Tian and his daughter to spend time with each other, as well as enable them to stay physically fit, while inspiring family and friends to do the same
  35. How China’s fearsome Tiger Dads found their way back into fashion: Strict fathers are winning support as society resists rising Western influence to embrace traditional Chinese parenting style
  36. 30 Story Building In China Built In 15 Days Time Lapse
  37. How Western Fake News Took Over China’s Social Media
  38. Where Stories of Peaceful Coexistence Are Written in Stone
  39. Body Folding Kung Fu With a Master
  40. Panama's Diplomatic Switch from ROC to PRC has everything to do with PRC's previous plan to fund and build the "Nicaragua Canal", which was announced in May 2017 to be either "paralyzed, or nonexistent" (I.e. PRC Threatened to end Panama Canal's monopoly in the region, and Panama caved)
  41. Spouts of Fury: When Tea and Kung Fu Collide
  42. The Art of Making 9-Foot Noodles by Hand
  43. Shaolin Temple Kung Fu Academy, Mount Song, Henan
  44. Translation of Cheng Pu's official SGZ biography
  45. What do you guys think about the Tui Bei Tu? (prophecy in China)
  46. DJI - SkyPixel - A New Way Up
  47. Someone spent 2 years painstakingly replicating China's Forbidden City in 'Minecraft': The team was led by 22-year-old Su Yijun from Guangzhou, who orchestrated the plan from scratch in 2014
  48. Fairy Footsteps in Green land
  49. So what is the Chinese Equivalent of 4chan/8chan?
  50. China’s old Silk Road revival: hi-speed trains, massive skyscrapers and free-trade zones
  51. Classic Chinese Music II [不裝飾你的夢]
  52. Female pilots fly JH-7 fighter bombers
  53. Qing Dynasty vase breaks Irish record at auction: was sold for $825,000 at Sheppard's auction in Ireland. The item is believed to date from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, the fourth emperor of the dynasty, who lived between 1711 and 1799
  54. GT editorial: Dialogue may lead to better ties if Trump can ignore US media criticism
  55. Mongols/Yuan should be considered Chinese or not...?
  56. A 7-year-old Romanian girl named Nana wows Chinese judges with fluent Chinese song
  57. California looks to build high-speed rail in cooperation with China
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Alpha Centauri [Semi-vanilla]{Whitelist}{1.10}{25+}

RustyOrang & ratngari present: A place where everyone is a star!
We're not trying to find the best builders or the masters of redstone.[And if you are, use it to help others or create mini-games :-)] It's not our goal to create the biggest server with a massive playerbase. We're not suited to run a kindergarten. All we're looking for is people (age: 20+) with team spirit. So far not too much has been build on the server so everyone can have a fresh start, find the resources they need, look for those precious diamonds, ...
What do we mean by team spirit? We really like interacting with the other players on our server. This can be chatting, building together, making mini-games for others to play, trading, help eachother out in many ways. The use of our TeamSpeak3 channel is much appriciated, although you're not required to be on TS every time you get on our MC server. Don't build next to someone else's building without asking the owner if (s)he's ok with it. If someone asks about your favorite eye-color, always answer with green. No need to grab other people's items, just ask around for a trade. It'll bring you further in the long run. If you feel destructive, craft some TNT, find a nice spot far away from any buildings, look for a buddy and play 'race to bedrock'. Don't go on a killingspree if it's not a part of a mini-game or mutually agreed upon.
Details of our server:
Application form (pm): * MC name: * Age (binary for extra points!): * A little bit about yourself: * When are you usually online? * Why do you play minecraft? * Optional questions: 1) Favorite youtuber: 2) Favorite Olympic athlete: 3) Favorite eye-color: 4) Favorite block: 5) Favorite 90's metal band: 6) Favorite star (astronomical): 7) Favorite writer:
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which broker has the best trading platform in india

which broker has the best trading platform in india
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submitted by ClaySota to ColoradoSprings [link] [comments]

[Just Launched] Options Domination Binary Trading - [Amazing System] - True Risk Free Trades! [New for 2015]

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Binary Options Trading - How I Turned $250 Into Almost ... IQ Option Tutorial Hindi Full guide for trading India Earn Money in Online Without Investment in Binary Option Trading at Home in Tamil Binary trading in India - YouTube REVEALED: Key Lessons in Options Trading with PR Sundar ... This is how to trade Binary Options Full Time! - YouTube Is Forex Trading Legal in India ? - Detailed Video - YouTube How to do an options trading in India. - YouTube Binary Options Trading से क्या लाखों रूपये कमाये जा सकते ...

The binary trading might be conducted with RS which is the official Indian currency and you will not be allowed to make exchange – RS to $. Traders should also be aware of the fact that the leverage should be less than 10 times – those are the regulations you need to know in case you want to start trading with online binary options. For many Indians, binary options trading is seen as a godsend, an excellent opportunity to earn a second income or as a way to work from home, especially after the Reserve Bank of India forbade Indian residents from trading forex online. As a result, questions are commonly asked as to whether it is actually legal to trade binary options in India. A seemingly grey area, confusion about the ... With India seen as a prime growth economy, with growing manufacturing and service industries, online trading has become a welcome choice to many residents who view this as a viable way to make a profit or earn an income. With Indian assets being more widely available on the many broker platforms and the increased use of smartphones, Indian binary options trading is now more accessible than ever. The good news is that it’s not hard to get started with binary options trading in India. Here’s a step-by-step process: 1. Open an account with an broker. Remember, you’ll have to go offshore to do this, but you can easily do it online. Please do your due diligence when you select a binary options broker. There are scam brokers that will accept your deposit and keep your money. There are ... There are also online brokers that operate in other countries but can provide options trading to India. IQ Option offers you a portal to binary trading in Hindi, with multilingual support staff on top of this. They are also registered in St. Vincent and the Grenadines and licensed to provide their services overseas. You cannot trade with rupees here but there are lots of other options ... Binary Options — In my opinion are nothing but glorified way of gambling. Many would say the same about Options Trading on Stocks, Indices , Currency and Commodities. But there is a difference. In Binary Options you take an either/or chance. Your ... De cookie-instellingen op deze website zijn ingesteld op 'toestaan cookies "om u de beste surfervaring mogelijk. Als u doorgaat met deze website te gebruiken zonder het wijzigen van uw cookie-instellingen of u klikt op "Accepteren" hieronder dan bent u akkoord met deze instellingen. Find your forex opportunity by trade binary option with India Invest Online any premium broker 2020 try and signup free. [email protected] +66909654998 . Log In. Home. About. เพิ่มเติม. contact me. HAVE YOU TRIED TRADING OPTIONS? Many people change their status to financial freedom. By becoming a trader of your options! Maybe one of them Try to study trading options ... Best Indian Options Trading and Brokers Websites. It is imperative to have the ability to be able to access a topnotch binary options trading broker or platform no matter where you happen to reside. This ensures that you are granted with instantaneous access to a trading site that not only caters to all of your needs a as trader, but has a plethora of available banking options.. De cookie-instellingen op deze website zijn ingesteld op 'toestaan cookies "om u de beste surfervaring mogelijk. Als u doorgaat met deze website te gebruiken zonder het wijzigen van uw cookie-instellingen of u klikt op "Accepteren" hieronder dan bent u akkoord met deze instellingen.

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Binary Options Trading - How I Turned $250 Into Almost ...

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